The Pak Moon dam a global example?
The Pak Moon situation has reached its point of culmination.
A genuine solution seems to be within reach. But still this unique
opportunity can break down completely and dissolve in endless conflict
damaging all parties. Can the media play a role in the course of events
between ongoing disaster or a hope-giving perspective? And what is
appropriate research in this situation?
Two panel-discussions will be devoted to these questions
on Saturday 2nd June, 10.00 ? 15.00 hours, in the new Dr. Puey Center,
Wat Pathum-Kongka, Songwad road, Bangkok.
Discussants will be a.o. Ajarn Sulak Sivaraksa, Dr
Chermsak Pinthong, Prof. Surichai Wan?gaeo, Suchada Chakpisuth, Mae
Majuree, Natedao Paethakul, Dr. Komart, Prof. Thanet. The opening
of the Pak Moon dam and the subsequent education & research period
provides an opportunity for Thailand to show to the world-community
its capability to resolve social conflicts. The Pak Moon situation
stands model for similar, increasingly pressing, problems worldwide.
a.. Can the Pak Moon dam become an international
example of empowerment of People?s Organisations; and demonstrate
a creative consensus on new directions in sharing food, energy, water,
health, work, income, education in a spirit of fairness, justice and
a Culture of Peace?
b.. Is an agreement possible in which all villagers?
groups as well as EGAT play a constructive role up to the best of
their civil responsibilities? Is there a sincere wish from the side
of EGAT to reach an agreement or are hidden tactics driving its actions?
c.. What kind of public support is needed to facilitate
the new Government to play its mediating and democratic decision making
role? What can be the supporting roles of the business community;
religious groups and spiritual leaders; education & research institutes?
d.. The chemical fertilizer industry is an extremely
high energy consuming economic sector. Can farmers commit to organic
practices in farming (natural farming) in order to reduce energy consumption?
e.. What can be the role of the media in advancing
sustainable solutions for the problems of our time: do they benefit
primarily from confrontation or from reconciliation?
Ajarn Sulak Sivaraksa will give a presentation on
this subject at the international congress of the World Association
for Christian Communication, 4 ? 7 July in Noordwijkerhout (near The
Hague) and on 8 July 2001 in De Rode Hoed, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Kan-Onsri [NOI] Friends of the People [FOP.] 99 ,
3rd Floor Nakorn Sawan Road Pomprab Bangkok 10100. THAILAND. Tel,
Fax ; (662) 2811916 , 2812595
Assembly of the Poor. http://www.thai.to/aop
Protection Mun River Network.
http://www.thai.to/munriver and http://www.yod.net/members/bun
Protection Yom River Network.
http://www.thai.to/yomriver and http://www.yod.net/members/kst
31.05.01: Québec :
people will be more involved in decisions concerning power stations
The governement of Québec is going to modified the rules on
the evaluations of the environmental impacts of some power stations.
So far, those studies were compulsory for station producing more than
10 megawatts. The limit will now be for the construction, reconstruction
and exploitation of thermic station using fossil energy and nuclear
power. Most of the new of projects of small hydroelectric power stations
will also be submitted to public approval.
d'électricité : le grand public sollicité (Québec)
Le gouvernement du Québec devrait modifier
le règlement sur l'évaluation et l'examen des impacts
sur l'environnement afin d'abaisser le seuil d'assujettissement pour
certaines centrales destinées à produire de l'électricité.
Ainsi, celui-ci devrait passer de 10 à 5 mégawatts et
vise les projets de construction, reconstruction et exploitation de
centrales thermiques fonctionnant aux combustibles fossiles et des
centrales nucléaires. Les autres filières énergétiques
telles que la thermique fonctionnant à la biomasse, la solaire
et l'éolienne conserveront un seuil d'assujettissement de 10
mégawatts. Concrètement, en abaissant le seuil d'assujettissement
de 10 à 5 mégawatts, la plupart des projets de construction
de nouvelles petites centrales hydroélectriques pourraient
être soumis à une audience publique.
31.05.01: Floods inundate
some parts of the world, while others are parched
By Maryann Bird, Time Europe
Floods inundate some parts of the world, while others are parched.
Managing our water is a 21st century challenge
Water, not oil, is the most precious fluid in our lives, the substance
from which all life on the earth has sprung and continues to depend.
If we run short of oil and other fossil fuels, we can use alternative
energy sources. If we have no clean, drinkable water, we are doomed.
As the 6 billion passengers aboard Spaceship Earth enter a complex
new century, few issues are as fundamental as water. We are falling
far short of the most basic humanitarian goals: sufficient and affordable
clean water, food and energy for everyone. "I cannot bear to
watch the nations cry," wrote Derek Walcott, the Caribbean-born
Nobel laureate, whose poetry often reflects his African heritage.
With regional disputes over water resources increasing, and people
and ecosystems alike facing urgent, immense challenges, business as
usual is not a viable option.
On a planet that is 71% water, less than 3% of it is fresh. Most of
that is either in the form of ice and snow in Greenland and Antarctica
or in deep groundwater aquifers. And less than 1% of that water -
.01% of all the earth's water - is considered available for human
needs; even then, much of it is far from large populations. At the
dawn of the 21st century, more than 1 billion people do not have access
to safe drinking water. Some 2.4 billion - 40% of the world's population
- lack adequate sanitation, and 3.4 million die each year from water-related
The global governmental neglect behind those numbers is "the
most critical failure of the 20th century" and the major challenge
for the 21st, contends Peter Gleick, one of the world's leading experts
on freshwater resources. "Governments, ngos and local communities
must address this problem first - as their top priority," says
Gleick, director of the California-based Pacific Institute for Studies
in Development, Environment and Security. "There are many tools
for doing so, and the economic costs are not high compared to the
costs of failing to meet these needs."
"We are facing a world water gap right now, this minute,"
the World Commission on Water has warned, "and the crisis will
only get worse. The consequences of failing to bridge the gap will
be higher food prices and expensive food imports for water-scarce
countries that are predominantly poor." Hunger and thirst are
also linked to political instability and low rates of economic growth.
Scientists, water professionals, environmental campaigners and others
have warned for decades that a water crisis was building - alarm bells
that rang on many a deaf governmental ear. The crisis is partly due
to natural cycles of extreme weather and the expansion and contraction
of arid regions. But human activity has been playing an ever-greater
role in creating water scarcity and "water stress" - defined
as the indication that there is not enough good-quality water to meet
human and environmental needs. Like so much of the earth's bounty,
water is unevenly distributed. While people in some parts of the world
pile up sandbags to control seasonal floods or struggle to dry out
after severe storms, others either shrivel and die - like their crops
and their livestock before them - or move on as environmental refugees.
In Canada - which has about the same amount of water as China but
less than 2.5% of its population - the resource has been labeled "blue
gold." In parched Botswana, dominated by the Kalahari Desert,
water is so precious that the national currency is called pula - "rain"
in the Setswana language. The planet is not actually running out of
water, of course. But its people are having an increasingly difficult
time managing, allocating and protecting the water that exists. In
some areas the hydrological cycle - by which the fresh water of rain
and snow eventually evaporates, condenses in clouds and falls again
- may be taking longer to complete as humans use water faster than
nature can renew it. As governments, international agencies and local
officials grapple with the situation, research findings and conflicts
over water rights illustrate the immensity of the task. For example:
. The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that 792 million
people in 98 developing nations still are not getting sufficient food
to lead normal, healthy lives. Even in the industrialized world and
in post-Soviet "countries in transition," 34 million people
remain undernourished. In the Commonwealth of Independent States,
the prevalence of undernourishment is greatest in Tajikistan, Azerbaijan,
Georgia and Armenia, while in Central Europe, Bulgaria is considered
the worst case. In the Middle East and North Africa, Yemen, Morocco
and Iraq are among the worst off.
. Asia and the Pacific have more chronically hungry people than elsewhere,
says the FAO, but the "depth of hunger" - a calculation
based on what energy they get from their food and the minimum energy
needed to maintain body weight - is greatest in sub-Saharan Africa,
home to some of the world's poorest countries. There, some 186 million
people - more than a third of the population - are considered undernourished.
. In many sub-Saharan countries, according to a report by the World
Water Council, the average per capita water-use rates are 10 to 20
liters a day, which it calls "undesirably low." By contrast,
per capita residential use in Europe runs as high as about 200 liters.
Beset by agricultural failure, fragile ecosystems, erratic weather,
war and other factors, 18 sub-Saharan countries face the severest
problems in feeding their people, says the FAO. . Disputes over water
- including threats of "water wars" - bubble in areas where
rainfall is sparse. Ignoring Israeli opposition, Lebanon began pumping
water in late March from the Hasbani River, which flows into the Jordan.
The village of Wazzani, which had been without water during two decades
of Israeli occupation, views access to the river as a matter of simple
rights as well as a symbol of sovereignty. Other current disputes
involve Turkey, Syria and Iraq (the Euphrates); Israel and Syria (the
Sea of Galilee); Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority (the
Jordan); Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and others (the Nile); Senegal and
Mauritania (the Senegal); and Iran and Afghanistan (the Helmand).
. In some places, water that is shared by nations has been poisoned
- sometimes accidentally, as in last year's Romanian cyanide spill
in the Tisza and Danube Rivers, and sometimes naturally, as in arsenic
poisoning of groundwater in India and Bangladesh in recent years.
More than 200 river basins are shared, and about half of them are
in Europe and Africa, according to the Pacific Institute. Nineteen
basins are shared by more than five political entities, led by the
Danube with 17.
As a 21st century issue, freshwater scarcity was ranked second only
to global warming in an International Council for Science survey of
environmental experts in more than 50 countries. Next on the list
were the related topics of desertification and deforestation. Desertification
is a feature of every continent, and it seriously threatens the livelihoods
of more than 1.2 billion people in more than 110 countries. Stemming
from a variety of factors - including climactic variations, overgrazing
of livestock, tilling land unsuitable for agriculture and chopping
trees for firewood - desertification has made its greatest impact
in Africa. The continent is two-thirds desert or fragile dryland,
and nearly three-quarters of its extensive agricultural drylands are
degraded to some degree.
"There is a great deal of natural rhythm in all of these shifts,"
says Vaclav Smil, professor of geography at Canada's University of
Manitoba and an expert on environmental and energy matters. But he
says better farming practices can help: "recycling crop residues,
planting leguminous cover crops [plants with seeds in pods], planting
trees everywhere." Smil also believes that even the poorest people
should be charged for their water - "as much as they can bear"
- to help ensure both efficient use and quality systems. "Otherwise
they will waste as much as anybody else." While much of the focus
is on Africa, developed but semiarid European countries along the
northern Mediterranean also are suffering from desertification and
deforestation. Much of the soil of Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal
has become saline and sterile as a result of fire, drought, floods,
overgrazing, overtilling and other factors. Such degradation can be
irreversible. As industry, tourism and farming place greater stress
on coastal areas in particular - and groundwater levels decline -
"water wars" are becoming internal. Hundreds of thousands
of Spaniards recently took to the streets of Madrid and Barcelona
to protest government plans to divert the country's largest river,
the Ebro, to supply water to the southeast. Marcelino Iglesias, president
of the regional government in northeastern Aragón, through
which the Ebro flows, has denounced the plan as "aiming at an
absolutely unsustainable model of development ... while consolidating
a second-class Spain in the interior."
Indeed, dams and irrigation are two of the most controversial aspects
of the global water debate and are being examined ever more critically.
The final report of the World Commission on Dams concluded that while
dams have delivered significant benefits, the price paid - in cost,
environmental impact and displacement of people - has in many cases
been unacceptable and often unnecessary. The report found "far
greater scope" for alternatives to dams in meeting water, food
and energy needs. "We excluded only one development option -
inaction," says the commission chairman, Kader Asmal, a former
South African Minister of Water Affairs.
"We must rethink water management," says Gleick. "We
no longer live in an era, or a world, in which rivers can be endlessly
dammed, aquifers relentlessly pumped, ecosystems degraded and impoverished
... We have to focus on how we use water. That's where new water will
be 'found.' "
As the world begins to address the situation more seriously, a range
of proposals, old and new, are coming to the fore. They include: reducing
waste in irrigation (providing more drip to the drop); desalinating
(where energy sources and funds permit, as in Saudi Arabia); recycling;
making appropriate local choices of crops and grain-fed animals (growing
corn rather than wheat in areas where water is not plentiful, raising
chickens rather than pigs); employing low-cost chlorination and solar
disinfectant techniques; increasing water "harvesting" -
from sources like rain and fog - for agricultural use, particularly
at village level; and transportation of potable water in giant polyurethane
bags to dry areas (as has been done in Cyprus and the Greek islands
Access to adequate, unpolluted water is increasingly being viewed
in development circles as a basic human right, something that governments
must ensure. As Mary Robinson, the U.N. High Commissioner for Human
Rights, told the dam commission: "In an age of globalization,
greater efforts can and must be made to reconcile the need for economic
growth with the need to protect the dignity of individuals, the cultural
heritage of communities and the health of the environment we all share."
For billions of people, that - like water itself - is a matter of
life and death.
29.05.01 : Quebec: 425 MW
small hydro against outdoor enthusiasts
Dam it? Outdoor lovers outraged
By Lynn Moore, The Gazette
Quebec's largest white-water festival will be wiped out and sports
on the popular Rouge River and other waterways might be crippled if
the province goes ahead with its small-dams project, outdoor enthusiasts
The project, announced Thursday by Natural Resources Minister Jacques
Brassard, would put 36 small private hydro-electric dams on 24 rivers
by 2005. Some of the targeted sites are popular canoeing, kayaking
and rafting venues.
The project "is absurd, unjustifiable and unjust," said
Jasmin Lefebvre, a lawyer and avid canoeist who, with other volunteers,
helped organize the Festival d'Eau Vive de la Haute Gatineau, now
in its fifth year.
The small private dams will primarily benefit the dam-owners and U.S.
companies that will be able to buy cheaper electricity. But they will
destroy valuable natural resources that bring pleasure to thousands
of Quebecers and draw tourists, Lefebvre and others concerned with
protecting wilderness areas said yesterday.
In an era where tourism authorities the world over are promoting and
developing adventure and eco-tourism, the word will spread that Quebec
"is cementing over its rapids and tourists won't come,"
Last year, about 800 people, including U.S. tourists, participated
in the whitewater festival held on an 8-kilometre stretch of the Gatineau
near Maniwaki at the end of August, he said.
This year, the provincial government - through the sports and leisure
branch of the Municipal Affairs Department - offered a $10,000 subsidy,
in part to promote the festival, which has in previous years been
touted by Tourism Quebec, Lefebvre said.
If the dams go through, instead "of rapids along a pristine stretch
of river with beautiful scenery, there will be two (man-made) lakes
and lots of concrete," Lefebvre said.
Yesterday, as many as 1,000 people were enjoying water sports like
rafting and kayaking on the Rouge River, said Chris Phelan, owner
of New World River Expeditions, one of the firms that offers rafting
on the river.
Phelan said that he heard Quebec lifted its moratorium on small-dam
construction but didn't yet know the details of what it planned for
According to information available on the Web site of the Quebec Natural
Resources Department and elsewhere, a dam is planned for the Seven
Sisters area of the Rouge near Grenville. It is not clear whether
the dam will be placed at the falls or the rapids.
"If they flood the rapids (for the dam), they would destroy the
recreational potential of the river," said Phelan, whose firm
owns land along the river and has a lease with Hydro-Quebec that enables
it to access the riverbed, which is owned by the utility.
Flooding rapids on one of the most popular rivers in Quebec doesn't
make sense, Phelan added. "Why would they target one of the few
places (handy to Montreal and Ottawa) where there are recreational
Phelan predicted that the outfitters and small businesses that use
the river, as well individuals, "will resist that to the end."
Brassard's spokesman did not respond to an interview request yesterday.
Should the project go ahead, about 425 megawatts of power would be
generated by the 36 dams. Individual dams producing more than five
megawatts will be subject to public hearings.
Lefebvre, who described himself as a former Parti Quebecois member,
said the government's decision to build small dams is contrary to
what PQ members have told the party they wanted.
He pointed out that the plan calls for the dam-promoters to enter
agreements with municipalities near the dams and said that aspect
smacks of a bid by the province to curry favour with the regions.
"We are like a banana republic if we go ahead with development
projects like this, which are not sustainable over the long term,"
Alain Bonin, also involved in the Gatineau festival, noted that Quebec
rivers - including the Gatineau - are laced with dams that are no
longer used, but which remain eyesores.
"Once a dam is built, the damage is done. You can't go back,"
A spokesman for the association representing Quebec's canoe and kayak
clubs said the group adamantly opposes the dam project.
- For more information about the dam project and a list of rivers
that would be affected, the province's announcement can be found on
the Web at www.mrn.gouv.qc.ca/2/23/230/intro.asp
- The Web site for the Federation Quebecoise de Canoe-Kayak d'Eau
Vive has information about dams that will be supplemented shortly.
It can found at: www.canot-kayak.qc.ca
- Lynn Moore can be reached by E-mail at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Lead Editorial Tuesday 29 May 2001
Say no to the dams
In a move suggesting that the provincial government has either taken
leave of its senses or is gearing up for the next election, Natural
Resources Minister Jacques Brassard has announced that private buyers
can build hydro-electric dams on 24 of the province's most beautiful
and well-used recreational waterways. The government has put no minimum
price on the 36 sites it has listed as potential dam sites. If all
36 sites were dammed, private promoters could generate as much as
425 megawatts of electricity, even though barely a year and a half
ago the Quebec Energy Board recommended they be given a maximum quota
of 150 MW.
Gilles Lefrancois, the head of the Quebec Association for the Production
of Renewable Energy, an association of private energy producers, was
particularly pleased by the energy board's abandoning the concept
of a "socially acceptable price" of energy in favour of
a "commercially acceptable" price.
Those who can see past the Parti Quebecois's need to direct regional-development
dollars into the hinterland before the next election are less pleased
with these latest developments. Consider some of the sites the government
has suggested could be dammed by 2005: the Sainte-Anne falls on the
Sainte-Anne River; the Sainte-Ursule falls on the Maskinonge River;
the Neuf falls on the Batiscan River in the town of Notre-Dame-de-Montauban;
and the Petite-Nation and Gatineau rivers in the Outaouais. The Rouge
River in the Laurentians is another, highly controversial site where,
every spring and summer, thousands of vacationers from Montreal and
Ottawa go to canoe, raft and kayak in the whitewater rapids and limpid
In a province where there is no pressing need to expand hydro production
for domestic consumption, the idea that some of the best recreational
sites should be stopped up with concrete defies logic. While the initial
impulse to pry some of the hydro-electric production out of Hydro-Quebec's
monopolistic hands is a good one, there is no need to sacrifice some
of the province's finest recreational spots over it. It is important
to keep in mind that those whom the small-dams project is expected
to benefit are the private dam owners and the U.S. market, with private
electric companies able to buy electricity more cheaply.
The province has promised that local communities will be consulted
before a dam is allowed to be constructed, but it does not explain
what constitutes a community. Will the vacationers count as part of
a community? Or the tourist companies whose livelihood also depends
on the rivers and falls? They surely have as much a right to make
their living from their natural resources as private dam owners.
There is also the thorny problem of Hydro-Quebec now saying the small-dam
project is not viable financially. A year ago, the energy board ruled
that Hydro-Quebec, which has about 33,000 MW of installed power, should
pay the private producers 4.5 cents per kilowatt-hour, a figure equal
to or less than what the utility calculated it would cost to develop
large power sites.
Now, however, Hydro-Quebec has revised its estimates and says that
a dam project with production costs estimated to be more than three
cents a kilowatt/hour is unacceptable. Not one of the small-dam projects
can produce electricity at less than three cents a MW/hour. Will this
lead the local hydro-electric producers to pare their costs to a minimum?
How safely can it be done?
If ever a project needed to go back to the drawing board, this is
one. Philip Raphals Directeur adjoint / Associate Director Le Centre
Hélios / Helios Centre for Energy Research 326, boul. St-Joseph,
suite 100 Montréal (Quebec) Canada H2T 1J2
(514) 849-7091 (telephone) (514) 849-6357 (fax)
National Park Service Detains Environmental Leaders At Lake Powell
Page City Councilmember's Boat Sustains Damage
Law enforcement officers of the National Park Service (NPS) on Sunday
detained environmental leaders at Lake Powell reservoir (Glen Canyon
National Recreation Area) near Page, Arizona. Leaders of the Sierra
Club's Glen Canyon Group, Living Rivers, and Glen Canyon Action Network
of Moab, Utah, were on board two powerboats with news media representatives
near Glen Canyon Dam, engaged in outreach efforts to promote restoration
of Glen Canyon, protection of Native American Indian sacred sites,
and the decommissioning of Glen Canyon Dam.
"It seemed obvious to us that the Park Service's interruption
of our event and detention of our boats were not matters of safety
or law enforcement, but an attempt to squelch our message and intimidate
us," said Owen Lammers, Executive Director of Glen Canyon Action
The environmental leaders were concluding a successful Memorial Day
weekend contacting Lake Powell visitors, informing them of the need
to drain the nation's second-largest reservoir. On Saturday, leaders
of the Diné (Navajo) Medicinemen's Association accompanied
the environmentalists and press representatives to Rainbow Bridge,
a sacred site to indigenous peoples of the Colorado Plateau, and a
National Monument operated by the NPS and partially inundated by Lake
Powell. The medicine men expressed great concern about the damage
to this sacred land and about the large amounts of revenue generated
by tours to Rainbow Bridge for Lake Powell concessionaire ARAMARK
Corporation, which has a virtual monopoly on such trips. The profitable
tours run several times each day to Rainbow Bridge, which is surrounded
by Navajo Nation lands, but provides no revenue to the tribe or to
tribal members, many of whom live in extreme poverty. 56% of Navajo
families live beneath the poverty line, and the reservation is burdened
by a 50% unemployment rate. The per capita income on the Navajo Nation
is just $4,106 per year-roughly the amount needed to rent and supply
an ARAMARK houseboat on Lake Powell for a family vacation this Memorial
The group also toured the site of the proposed Antelope Point Marina
near Page, a major development that would damage ceremonial and archeological
sites, and increase water and air pollution in the Glen Canyon area.
The Park Service recently contracted with Phoenix-based trucking conglomerate
Swift Transportation Company, to construct and operate the marina
in the plume of the massive Navajo Generating Station electrical power
plant, one of the largest air pollution sources in the nation. The
project is being challenged by a coalition of Native American and
environmental advocacy groups.
At around 11:00 AM, Sunday, May 27, rangers in an NPS patrol boat,
with blue lights flashing, approached the environmentalists. Tying
up to the boats, the officers demanded identification from the individuals,
informing them that they were investigating a complaint of harassment
lodged against the environmentalists by unspecified recreational boaters.
Seasonal law enforcement ranger Julie Lyn Yucker, a student at Northern
Arizona University, admitted that there was no evidence other than
hearsay to justify the intervention. As she was making this admission
to Sierra Club volunteets, she suddenly pulled the NPS patrol craft
away from the first boat and, with lights flashing, approached the
other boat, demanding that a reporter in that watercraft stop photographing
the incident. When pressed, Officer Yucker admitted that she had observed
no one doing anything wrong, and stated repeatedly that, "you
are in no trouble whatsoever."
Nevertheless, Yucker and fellow seasonal law enforcement ranger Tim
Havens, on loan from Zion National Park, ran warrant searches on the
environmental leaders and the press. Simultaneously, another NPS ranger
stood on the shoreline about 150 yards away, monitoring the interrogation.
"It was evident that Park Service police not only sought to silence
the anti-dam activists, but wanted to ensure that their intimidating
tactics were not recorded," said Jeffrey St. Clair, editor of
the political newsletter Counterpunch. "These are the kinds of
chilling tactics one would expect in Beijing or Teheran, not a national
During the detention, the NPS boat forced the environmentalists' boats
to become pinned against a metal cable system designed to keep watercraft
out of the area in front of the dam. The boat, graciously rented to
the environmentalists by Page businessman and City Councilmember Tim
McDaniels, owner of Doo Powell, Inc., the largest off-lake supplier
of rental watercraft at Lake Powell, sustained damage estimated by
Mr. McDaniels at $700.00.
"We expect the Park Service will appropriately compensate Mr.
McDaniels for the damage done to his boat," stated John Weisheit,
Chair of the Sierra Club's Glen Canyon Group. "We know this has
been a trying experience for him."
# # #
G L E N C A N Y O N A C T I O N N E T W O R K People for the Integrity
of the Colorado River : email@example.com
29.05.01: Fresh Initiative
Taken To Refresh Nairobi River
By Robert Otani (ENS) - The Nairobi River, one of the most polluted
rivers in Kenya, is the focus of an intense cleanup campaign by the
United Nations Environment Programme which is headquartered in Kenya's
capital city of Nairobi, through which the river runs.
For full text and graphics visit: