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18.02.05 : Dams in Iran: reprieve for some, no time left for others

Archaeologists in the Bulaghi valley have been given more time to survey the
site before it is submerged. Their colleagues elsewhere are not so lucky
By Lucian Harris

The contrasting progress of two major archaeological salvage operations in
Iran, where an ambitious programme of dam building has created a continuing
threat to heritage sites, has highlighted the problems faced as this country
attempts to reconcile necessary development and modernisation with the
conservation and research of the rich remains of its historical past.

Last month, international archaeologists began to arrive in the Bulaghi
valley in Fars Province, which is set to be flooded when a reservoir is
created behind the newly constructed Sivand dam. The valley, which is rich
in archaeological remains, is located close to the ancient city of
Pasargadae, capital of King Cyrus II, founder of the Achaemenid dynasty, and
a Unesco World Heritage Site since 2004.

Over the next year, seven or eight small teams from France, Italy, Poland,
Australia, Germany, and Japan, will assist Iranian archaeologists in
excavating the most important of 130 sites identified in an initial survey
of the valley, ranging from the prehistoric
to the Achaemenid, and Sassanian periods.

Dr Mohammad Talebian, director of the Parse-Pasargardae Project which is
co-ordinating the salvage operation, told The Art Newspaper that the
Ministry of Energy had agreed to postpone the flooding of the valley for a
year while excavations continued, but that funding, which had also been
promised had yet to appear. The salvage operation, he hoped, would provide a
model for the future, as Iran continues its programme to harnass the power
of its rivers.

Dr Massood Azarnoush, director of the Archaeological Research Centre in
Tehran, part of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organisation (ICHO), told The
Art Newspaper that it was an important matter for Iran to be able to control
its water resources, particularly in light of the eight year drought in the
south-east. He said that in a country where it is almost impossible to break
the surface of the ground anywhere without finding some archaeological
remains, the challenge was to raise public and governmental awareness of the
need for proper archaeological research and conservation.

Dr Azarnoush said that the government had recently issued a declaration that
all development projects should take archaeology into consideration, and
that he had asked local authorities in all Iran's provinces to give warning
before any such projects are commenced.

If the Bulaghi valley operation does, as hoped, become a model for the
handling of similar situations in the future, the converse is true of the
archaeological salvage currently underway at the ancient site of Izeh in the
Karun River valley in Khuzestan, where archaeologists have had neither
sufficient time nor funding. With only one month to go before the reservoir
behind the Karun-III dam is fully filled, the director of excavations Dr
Jafar Mehrkian told The Art Newspaper that his small team was working on the
last of 21 important sites they had excavated. He said little warning had
been given over the reactivation of the long dormant dam project, and that
his repeated appeals for international asssistance during the five month
salvage operation had been to no avail. Expertise was still greatly needed,
he said, particularly in metallurgy and physical anthropology.

Dr Mehrkian said that important archaeological sites were also threatened by
the Karun-II and Karun-IV dams, the latter already under construction and
expected to be operational in 2008. With plans to build more dams on the
Karun and its tributaries, a comprehensive plan for the rescue and
conservation of the rich archaeological and cultural heritage of the area is
extremely important.

19.02.05 : Water Wars: Pakistani Provinces Clash Over Mega Dam (OneWorld South Asia)

LAHORE, Feb 19 (OneWorld) - Pakistan's southern province of Sindh has become a rallying point for protests and hunger strikes against two huge water projects, which activists claim will benefit only the eastern province of Punjab and deny other states their share. Last week, 11 members of the Jiye Sindh Qaumi Mahaz (JSQM) began a fast till death in Karachi, the capital of the province, demanding that the government abandon the Kalabagh dam and the Greater Thal Canal projects. JSQM chairman Bashir Qureshi claims his movement has the backing of the 40 million people of Sindh. "The Sindh assembly, all political, religious and nationalist parties -- irrespective of ideology -- have given the thumbs-down to the controversial water projects," says Qureshi. Says Qadir Magsi, chief of the Sindh Taraqi Passand Party, "World powers exaggerate the issue of weapons of mass destruction. But the Kalabagh dam will kill 40 million people of Sindh, 30 million of the NWFP and 15 million of Balochistan." Calling Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf an enemy of Pakistan, the provincial president of Benazir Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party, Nisar Khuhro, says his party will not sit idle when the interests of Pakistan are threatened. At the center of the controversy is the Kalabagh dam, to be located on the Indus river, 100 miles southwest of Islamabad. It was conceived by the government in 1953 and a project report in 1984 tried to establish the technical and economic feasibility of the project. The Water and Power Development Authority's latest brief on the project says, "It is expected to be a 260-foot high structure that will create a 6.1 million acre feet (MAF) reservoir of usable storage." The project will also generate 2,400 MW of power and this may later be increased to 3,600 MW, making Kalabagh one of the largest hydroelectric dams in Asia. The total cost of the civil and power facilities is estimated at US $5 billion. The second project is the Greater Thal Canal, which, along with its branches, will be 1,221 miles long. The project is estimated to cost US $610 million and will be completed in seven years, providing irrigation facilities to 1.9 million acres in Punjab province. Opposition from Sindh and the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) to both projects is strong because people cutting across the political spectrum believe that Punjab wants to hog the lion's share of Pakistan's river water. Last month, at a meeting of the political committee, which has to make recommendations on new dams by June 2004, differences among the four provinces spilled into the open. While Sindh, NWFP and the western province of Balochistan called for removing mistrust, Punjab wanted everyone to get cracking. Sindh representative Syed Qamaruzzaman Shah rejects the construction of the Kalabagh dam, saying that Sindhis could not trust anybody because of past experiences. "The Water Accord 1991 is not being implemented and Sindh has not yet been provided money announced for the rehabilitation of its irrigation system," he says. Shah also questions why the authorities won't make public the design of the Kalabagh dam, if it is really a storage reservoir as claimed. Sharreff Nisar Leghari, a member of the Sindh provincial assembly, also says no to the dam. "Sindhis are not ready to allow new dams because of the climate of mistrust, and they demand new storage sites in Sindh province instead of in Punjab," he says. Sardar Muhammad Khan, a member of the Balochistan assembly, issues a darker threat. "The federating units cannot co-exist till equality prevails," he says. But Sindh Minister for Inter-Provincial Coordination, Nadir Akmal Khan Leghari, says that rumors regarding the starting of construction work of the Kalabagh dam are part of the opposition's disinformation drive. He explains that before initiating the construction of the dam, the consensus of all the four provinces, especially Sindh, will be sought and their apprehensions removed. Leghari denies that Punjab is involved in siphoning water. According to him, the construction of new reservoirs is necessary to overcome the water shortage. He says his ministry has focused on solving the problems faced by Sindh and in this regard, the paper work has been completed, while talks are under way with Punjab and Balochistan. But water expert Amjad Hussain asserts that the human and material costs of the Kalabagh dam far outweigh its benefits and will only ensure the penury of future generations. "For a fraction of the money earmarked for Kalabagh, 105,000 water courses in Pakistan could be lined and farmers trained to level farms and manage water," Hussain maintains. He says this will reclaim at least 10-12 MAF of water, almost double the storage capacity of Kalabagh, and significantly reduce waterlogging and soil degradation. Environmentalist Muhmmad Tanveer says that large dams have already played havoc with marine life and depleted wetlands in the Indus delta, spread over 300 square kilometers. Because of impediments upstream, the area covered by mangrove forests has reduced from 3 million hectares to 100,000 hectares. Riverine forests on the banks of the Indus also face extinction, warns Tanveer. Another ecological nightmare is the gradual ingress of the sea. Some 1.2 million acres of agricultural land have so far been devoured by the sea, threatening the livelihood of 400,000 fishermen and their dependents residing along the 100-km Sindh coastline. Irrigation expert and political leader Mubashir Hasan fears a political disaster if Pakistan presses ahead with the Kalabagh dam and Greater Thal Canal. "The project should not be launched, no matter how useful or beneficial it is for the proponents, as other provinces don't like it at all," he argues. In his opinion, the technical case for building a dam is not weak. "But it would be virtual suicide if it is not backed by political consensus. Let the provinces have political and administrative autonomy and they will approve not one but many dams," he says. Hasan believes there should be more openness to remove all misgivings. He says Pakistan should make public the design of the dam, along with the cost estimates. But then, transparency has never been this government's strong point.

14.02.05 : EDF en examen pour violation des Principes directeurs de l’OCDE
dans un barrage au Laos

Le gouvernement français a accepté la plainte contre Electricité de France
pour violation potentielle des Principes directeurs de l’OCDE à l’intention
des entreprises multinationales, dans le barrage hydroélectrique de Nam
Theun 2 (Laos). L’entreprise refuse en effet de prendre ses responsabilités
sociales et environnementales au sérieux. Avant toute avancée du projet,
les Amis de la Terre demandent que la plainte soit examinée, et les
éventuelles recommandations intégralement suivies.

EDF est leader du consortium créé pour ce méga-projet d’un coût total de
1,3 milliards de dollars. Le barrage noierait presque 500 km2, déplacerait
6200 personnes et bouleverserait le mode de vie de plus de 100 000 autres,
dépendant très largement de la rivière.

« L’acceptation de cette plainte est très importante pour les ONG mais
également pour les populations locales laotiennes, qui ne disposent pas
dans leur pays de mécanismes pour tenir EDF responsable des impacts du
projet et obtenir des compensations » explique Sébastien Godinot des Amis
de la Terre. « Nous avons des preuves claires qu’EDF est malhonnête avec
les Laotiens sur les réels impacts du projet sur le mode de vie local et
l’environnement ».

La plainte, déposée par plusieurs associations dont les Amis de la Terre,
met en évidence qu’EDF a :
- exagéré les impacts positifs du projet tout en minimisant les
risques réels
- échoué à analyser et rendre publics les impacts et coûts réels
du projet
- échoué à répondre correctement aux inquiétudes des populations

La France a ratifié les Principes directeurs de l’OCDE à l’intention des
entreprises multinationales, s’engageant formellement à les faire respecter
par ses entreprises. Elle dispose d’un Point de Contact National qui statue
sur la recevabilité des plaintes et les examine sur le fond, avant de faire
des recommandations. Il associe plusieurs Ministères et syndicats.

Ce n’est pas la première fois qu’EDF fait face à des critiques sur ses
activités internationales. En 2003, l’entreprise avait déjà été forcée de
sortir temporairement du projet de Nam Theun 2 suite aux critiques
virulentes du Parlement français sur ses investissements désastreux à

EDF a jusqu’au mois de mai 2005 pour clore le plan de financement du
projet. Le sort du barrage dépendra ensuite de la Banque mondiale, dont le
soutien est une condition pour que s’engagent également la Coface, l’agence
française de crédits aux exportations, l’AFD, et la Banque Asiatique de

« La Banque mondiale considère ce projet comme un nouveau modèle de
développement. On voit mal comment elle accepterait de le financer si
l’entreprise leader du projet viole les principes de l’OCDE sur la
responsabilité des entreprises », estime Jan Cappelle de Proyecto Gato

Pour en savoir plus

Contact presse Sebastien Godinot, Les Amis de la
Terre(France) 01 48 51 18 92 / 06 68 98 83 41

11.02.05 : Spain (Ecotaxe on water), Government backs down (Edie News)

An eco-tax on water consumption has been postponed by the Spanish government for around four years, according to the Department for Agriculture. Now put off until 2009, the water eco-tax was to implement the EU water framework directive's requirements to pass infrastructure cost on to users. The directive states that national pricing policies must provide an "adequate incentive" to use water efficiently. Spain's previous government played a large part in defeating attempts to impose a stronger requirement for full-cost water pricing. The previously proposed charge was to be levied on a sliding scale from 0.1 per cubic meter for some farmland areas, and 1.5 per cubic metre for new tourist developments. Farmers responsible for over three-quarters of Spain's water consumption joined together and fiercely opposed the plan. Following the latest government announcement, environmental campaign group Ecologists in Action has now accused the Spanish government of caving in to the horticulture lobby. However, current Minister for Agriculture, Fernando Moraleda, stated that future proposals would minimise any impacts on farm exports and employment. "The government has taken into account the social, environmental and economic repercussions that any changes will have, as well as the geographic and climatic conditions of the regions that would be affected," the Department for Agriculture said in a statement. "We are in firm agreement that any changes to legislation will depend upon socio-economic implications, as well as on the agricultural sector." By Jane Kettle
Source: edie newsroom


he Copenhagen Post : The kinks are being put back into Danish streams
Denmark's most voluminous stream, Sjkern Å, is a meanderer again. After
being straightened and losing most of its wildlife, the stream has been
allowed to follow a natural course - to the benefit of both wildlife and
In the 1960's, meandering streams were considered a hindrance to
development, and the Danish state used a lot of time and effort to turn
winding streams into straight arrow property lines.
Streams were straightened out and their banks incorporated into the
surrounding agricultural landscape. Biologists reasoned that if the natural
residents of the streams - fish, birds, plants - didn't like their new
accommodations, they would find a new habitat.
The problem was that they didn't move. They died.
‘Our streams became impoverished. The connection between waterways and the
surrounding areas disappeared,’ said biologist Peter Bundgaard, from
Ringkøbing County in western Denmark.
‘Animal life can't survive in water that flows unimpeded. It wasn't that
the water in Skjern Å was polluted,’ said Bundgaard, explaining the
disappearance of wildlife from the stream.
Starting in the 1990's, with pressure from environmental groups, Denmark's
streams were allowed to flow along their natural courses. Farmers
protested, but politicians had been convinced. They also had money to
compensate them.
In 2003, and a cost of almost DKK 300 million, Skjern Å once again flowed
Now, the area around the river has become a 22 sq. km natural park complete
with walking and biking paths and two small ferries.
Wildlife is also on the rebound. Rare birds have begun nesting in area's
meadows, lakes, and brooks, according to Jens Møller Andersen, project
leader at Denmark's Environmental Research Institute (DMU). ‘That's pretty
impressive,’ he said.
Møller expects that other forms of wildlife will also make their way back
to the area over time.
All rights reserved CPHPOST.DK ApS
Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited by law.
Source: The Copenhagen Post via EWMN News

27.01.05 : Italy Sounds Alarm Over Shrinking Beaches (Reuter)

ROME - Italy said on Wednesday it faced a "national emergency" as over-development
was causing its beaches to shrink at an alarming rate, posing a threat both to
nature and to the country's huge holiday trade.
"There is no doubt that there is a real national emergency, a serious problem for
Italy where 60 percent of tourism is on the coast," Environment Minister Altero
Matteoli told a conference on coastal erosion.
With an annual tourism income of more than 150 billion euros ($195 billion), or more
than 10 percent of GDP, Italy has an interest in protecting its natural assets. But
the very attraction of the seaside may be leading to its downfall.

Construction, often of holiday homes which have sprung up in huge numbers in recent
decades, meant a 26 percent increase in built-up coast between 1975 and 1990,
according to European Union data, and that has had a knock-on effect on beaches.

Seawalls and harbours, land reclamation and dredging can all have a long-term impact
on the flow of sediments which make and maintain beeches. Such man-made impacts
cause more problems than natural erosion, according to the EU's Eurosion report.
Europe loses 15 square km of beach a year due to erosion, the report said.

Italy, with 7,600 km (4,700 miles) of coastline, is one of the hardest-hit countries
and an Italian group told Wednesday's conference that 4 square km of local beaches
had vanished "in recent years".
But while the causes of beach erosion are well known, possible solutions are hotly
disputed. For the hosts of the Rome conference, a company called Eurobuilding, the
answer lies in "beach nourishment", taking sand from the seabed and dumping it onto
depleted beaches. A major project of that type converted Miami beach in the 1970s
from a mere strip of sand to a broad sandy playground and world famous tourist
attraction, speakers at the conference said, adding similar schemes could boost
Italian tourism.

But Italian ecologists say such activities usually do more harm than good and they
have protested against recent efforts to use the method to beef up the seaside near
"Beach nourishment is a catastrophe for the seabed," said Paolo Guglielmi, of the
conservation group WWF (formerly the World Wildlife Fund). Sea life is damaged and
the newly created beach is often washed away in a few years, he said. Instead of
such industrial-scale intervention, developers should ensure they do not destroy
silt flows that create beaches, Guglielmi said.
"To make tourism more sustainable is more important than beach nourishment. It means
trying to find a natural balance."

Story by Robin Pomeroy

26.01.05 : Brazilian Dam-Affected families blockade roads to protest against
multinational corporations

Around 1500 small farmers affected by the construction of dams started this
morning (26 of January) various blockades in different roads in four
different points of the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul
(whose capital is Porto Alegre, site of the World Social Forum). The main
goal of the protest is to press for the end of dam construction in Brazil
and to denounce at the WSF multinational corporations who own these dams,
such as ALCOA, ALCAN, Tractebel and AES.

In the district of Goio-Em, on a state road (between the cities
of Chapecó and Erval Grande), 600 peasants started a blockade at 11 am. In a
federal highway, near the city of Vacaria there are 300 families blockading
the road.

Small farmers are also blockading the entrance of the
construction site of São Bernardo dam, which is being built on the São
Bernardo river, a tributary of the Uruguay River. In the state of Santa
Catarina, around 250 families are continuing their blockade of a federal
highway at the entrance of the construction site of Campos Novos dam (which
is being financed by the Inter-American Development Bank).
Blockades are bringing together families affected by several
dams (Itá, Machadinho, Barra Grande, Foz do Chapecó, Pai Querê, Monjolinho,
Campos Novos, São Bernardo, Quebra-Queixo), all of them in the Uruguay River
Basin. According to Luis Dalla Costa, coordinator of the Movement of People
Affected by Dams (MAB), the protests will remain indefinitely and the
farmers have already started to prepare camps at the site of the blockades.
“Multinational corporations are turning our region into an enormous
reservoir, expelling thousands of farmers and destroying the environment”,
he said.

To MAB, most of the energy generated by those dams will be
destined for aluminum, cement, iron processing, and cellulose industries
that are owned by the same national and international companies that are
building the dams. “These electro-intensive industries use a huge amount of
energy, create little employment and cause great damage to the environment,
and because of this they are considered to be undesirable in various
countries of the first world”, affirms Dalla Costa.

Maximino Deparis, small farmer affected by Itá dam, denounces
that these corporations are stealing Brazilian energy and water resources.
“While in our houses we pay the fifth highest rate for energy worldwide, the
electro-intensive industries receive cheap energy, subsidized by the
government”. For the farmer, Brazil is exporting “damaged human lives and
destroyed forests in the shape of aluminum bars”.

The protest counts also with the support of Via Campesina
International. Via Campesina is organizing and participating in its 3rd
International Camp at the WSF. Besides the demand for an end to dam
construction, the peasants also claim fair compensation for all families
affected by already constructed dams, the reduction of energy rates paid by
residential consumers and real investments in a plan for regional
development and in energy alternatives, such as solar, wind and biomass

source : COMMUNIQUE FROM MAB (Brazil) via International Rivers Network

21.01.05 : French draft water law heads for parliament

The French environment ministry has asked the state council to advise on reworked proposals for a major overhaul of national water law before they are sent to parliament. The new water legislation is necessary because the situation in France "is not entirely satisfactory", as the government puts it carefully in the introduction to the bill. The legislation has been in gestation since the centre-right government took power in June 2002 and quashed previous proposals that had included a controversial nitrate tax on farmers. In a critical report published in 2003 the parliamentary office identified nitrates and phosphates from agriculture as one of the main sources of water pollution in France. In large areas France doesn't meet EU water quality standards. Many lakes and rivers show high concentrations of pesticides, phosphates and nitrates and France has been condemned five times by the European court of justice for not implementing EU directives on nitrates, dangerous substances and urban wastewater treatment. Other problems are diffuse pollution due to inadequate treatment of wastewater from isolated dwellings, and a backlog in equipping the whole country with approved drinking water pipes and sewage systems. Under the government's proposals municipalities and water agencies will get more funds and instruments to deal with these problems.
source: Environment Daily

21.01.05 : Russian Rivers Prove Man-Made Climate Change - Report

LONDON (Reuter) - Increased flows of Russian rivers into the Arctic Ocean
are due to man-made greenhouse gases and might indicate changing global
rainfall patterns, according to a report by leading British climate
The team at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research -- part
of the British Meteorological Office -- said computer models showed that
the cause was human activity and predicted that things would get worse.
"By analysing river-monitoring data from the six largest Eurasian rivers
flowing into the Arctic Ocean, scientists have found a trend of increased
river output during the 20th century," the report said.
"A similar trend is found in the climate simulation for the same period by
the Hadley Centre's coupled climate model, but only when the effects of
man-made greenhouse gases are included," it added.
Lead scientist Peili Wu said the findings were in line with predictions
that global warming would lead to changes in the water cycle.
"Our model predicts that these changes will intensify in the coming
decades, with implications for water supply and risks of flooding," he added.
The report said increased flows had been observed from the Yenisey, Lena,
Ob, Pechora, Kolyma and Severnaya Dvina rivers.
The report said the changes in the world's water cycle could also have
implications for the circulation of the Atlantic Ocean and the key Atlantic
Conveyor current which has been predicted to show signs of weakening.
It comes just four weeks before the Kyoto climate change treaty enters into
force, aimed at curbing the emissions of the main greenhouse gas carbon
Critics say the treaty is too late and inadequate to tackle the looming
global climate crisis.
They note the world's worst polluter, the United States, has refused to
sign up arguing human activities do not contribute to climate change which
is a natural phenomenon.
Environmentalists also note the treaty is not binding on developing
nations, but they say it is the only show in town and must be made to work.
Environmentalists say a two-degree centigrade rise in warming is in the
pipeline -- melting icecaps and boosting sea levels -- and action is needed
now to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Story by Jeremy Lovell

19.01.05 : preparations made should drought continue (if the lack of rain

Spain's environment minister, Cristina Narbona, has announced several
measures which will be put in place if the lack of rain continues across
the country. Although she said the current situation was not yet worrying,
she said she had instructed the regional water boards to make preparations
should the drought continue. Locally the Southern Water Board has already
announced that it is making some preparations. Local reservoirs in Málaga
are an average 48% full, some 9 points down on last year at the same time.
The regional government is saying there is water for a year's supply but if
the drought continues greater use will be made of the desalination plant in
Marbella and wells last used in 1995 would be opened up again.

Source: via European
Water Management News

13.01.05 : Angler's paradise threatened by plans to dam Norway's Vefsna river
Norway's largest electricity company, Statkraft, is set to destroy the country's last, great, unprotected river if plans to dam the Vefsna River are approved. The Vefsna is a paradise for anglers with its large populations of sea trout and inland trout, and has the second largest spawning area in Norway for the threatened wild Atlantic salmon. Statkraft's proposed hydropower plant may also affect local populations of the endangered Arctic fox.
Read more
Urge Statkraft's CEO to drop the hydropower plans! (WWF Passport)
source and more information and photos : international

12.01.05 : Russia to Invest up to $500M in Hydropower Station in Tajikistan


On Wednesday, Jan. 12, representatives of the Russian power grid monopoly
[]Unified Energy System signed an agreement with Tajik and Iranian
officials for the construction of two stages of the Sangtudin hydropower
stations, located in Tajikistan.

"This is a single technical project. The construction of Sangtudin-1
hydropower station will be carried out by the UES of Russia, and the
Sangtudin-2 hydropower station by Iran," the Tajik Energy Minister
Nurmakhmadov reported after the three-way negotiations.

Also speaking to reporters was the chairman of the Russian power grid
monopoly Anatoly Chubais, who said: "We are facing a task of building
these hydropower stations over the course of four years. The scale of this
technological complex is unique and our task is to start the preliminary
works as soon as possible. The work at Sangtudin-1 will start right away,

Speaking of the project's cost Chubais said that the final evaluation has
not been made yet, but that the approximate cost "amounts to $400-500
>million". The UES chairman also said that "a considerable volume of work
has already been done [at the site] but there is need to renew [what has
been done]".

Touching upon the project's financing, Anatoly Chubais, quoted by RIA
Novosti, said: "Everything that has been done so far and is present at the
construction site will be Tajikistan's contribution to the new legal
entity. The second part is Russia's financial contribution of $200
million, and the third part is the conversion of Tajikistan's debt to
Russia ($50 million)."

"This is the first such project for Russia's power engineers in the CIS
countries. No other CIS country can boast such volumes of Russian
investments," said the UES chairman, adding that Tajikistan "pursued a
purposeful strategic line to achieve this result".

Commenting on Kazakhstan's earlier-declared intention to invest $30
million in the construction of this hydropower station, Anatoly Chubais
said: "We are ready to consider Kazakhstan's position if they speak more

The output capacity of the Sangtudin-1 hydropower station, which is
located 120 kilometers south of the Tajik capital will amount to
approximately 670 megawatts. The construction of this power station was
begun in 1989 but the break-up of the Soviet Union and the civil war which
ravaged Tajikistan afterwards put a halt to all construction work.

source : IRN International Rivers Network (

03.01.05 : New report on Public Participation in Water Management in the Eastern Baltic Sea Region

A new report on Public Participation in Water Management in the Eastern
Baltic Sea Region was prepared as part of GWP CEE Public Participation Task
Force activities. Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest in
public participation in a wide range of sectors and contexts, including
environmental management, agriculture, conservation etc. Public
participation has gained wide recognition on different levels of governance
as a key principle for water management.
<>

Source: River Dialogue


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