: Bishop Ends Fast Over Brazil Irrigation Project
BRAZIL: October 7, 2005 CABROBO, Brazil - A militant bishop on
Thursday ended a hunger strike staged in protest against a huge
irrigation project for Brazil's impoverished northeast after a
government envoy promised to open new discussions on the plan.
is suspended in favor of life," Roman Catholic Bishop Luiz
Flavio Cappio said outside the small chapel on the banks of Sao
Francisco River in Pernambuco state where he has fasted for the
past 11 days.
Cappio had vowed to keep up his hunger strike until he died unless
President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva's government canceled the
$2 billion project to divert river water through a network of
canals. He says it would harm the environment and help big business
at the expense of the poor.
59-year-old leftist priest stopped his protest after five hours
of talks with the government's political coordination minister,
Jacques Wagner, and the Vatican's ambassador to Brazil, Lorenzo
head of the National Bishops Conference of Brazil, Odilo Scherer,
said the Vatican had intervened in the case by asking the government
to seek an accord with Cappio. But he criticized the bishop for
using a hunger strike as a tactic.
said his decision was based on a government pledge to begin talking
with concerned parties on other possibilities for the project
before starting work.
government also committed itself to pushing through Congress 300
million reais ($130 million) per year in funding for a 20-year
plan to revitalize the polluted Sao Francisco River and protect
the region's environment, he said.
original budget for environmental aspects of the project -- which
is still awaiting a final go-ahead from the state environmental
watchdog Ibama -- had been meager.
The dispute was an uncomfortable one for Lula, who took office
in 2003 as a champion of the poor and a campaigner for the environment.
Cappio was an old ally of his during his rise from grass-roots
The bishop, who has campaigned to save the river and worked with
the rural poor for years, sang a hymn before announcing the agreement
to call off the fast.
"The key was extending talks and debate before the beginning
of the project," said Wagner, standing at his side.
Dozens of local people and supporters who have attended nightly
Masses held by Cappio cheered the news. But others were skeptical.
The bishop's adviser, Adriano Martins, said that based on the
Lula government's record, "I have all the reasons in the
world to distrust these promises."
Cappio said he could go on hunger strike again if the deal was
The project was to pump water from the Sao Francisco River to
12 million people in drought-hit areas of the arid northeast,
the poorest region in this vast country.
Engineers were to dig 440 miles (700 km) of canals and build pumps
to transfer water from the river across four states. The 1,700-mile
(2,700-km) river rises in Minas Gerais state and flows into the
In a letter delivered to Cappio, Lula reminded him of his own
roots in a poor family in the northeast.
I was a boy I had to collect rainwater to drink and walk kilometers
with a bucket on my head to get a little water for the house,"
But he added:
"Twelve million people need water to live."
by Andrew Hay
: US : agreement to begin dredging New York's Hudson River to
remove toxic waste.
- The US government and General Electric Co. said Thursday they
reached an agreement to begin dredging New York's Hudson River
to remove toxic waste.
effort to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from a 43-mile
stretch of the Hudson River is due to begin in 2007 under the
terms of the agreement filed in federal court in Albany, New York.
GE said it has committed $111 million to the US Environmental
Protection Agency for past costs and future oversight of the work.
The EPA said GE has paid $37 million and the new pact calls for
it to pay up to $78 million more.
is an important milestone in this complex environmental project
that will result in a healthier river, providing vast economic
and recreational opportunities," EPA Administrator Stephen
Johnson said in a statement.
government says GE released large quantities of PCBs into the
river from two major electrical equipment manufacturing facilities
along the river for about 30 years, ending in the 1970s.
were widely used for fire prevention and insulation in the manufacture
of transformers because of their ability to withstand high temperatures.
PCBs can accumulated in fish, posing a cancer risk to people who
eat the fish.
EPA has estimated the total cost to be $500 million to remove
an estimated 150,000 pounds of PCBs.
one of the project, GE will hire contractors to conduct the dredging
and construct and operate a sediment processing facility and then
transport the dried sediment for final disposal outside the Hudson
week, up to 250 rail cars will transport sediment from the processing
facility, said GE.
will be an independent review of phase one, that aims to remove
about 10 percent of the contaminated sediment, before further
dredging is conducted.
of the dredging have charged it could stir up contaminants and
cause more harm than good.
will work with EPA, the State of New York and other stakeholders
to ensure this project is conducted safely and in a way that addresses
both PCBs in the river and the concerns of local communities that
may be impacted by the project," said Stephen Ramsey, GE's
vice president of corporate environmental programs.
which had net income of $4.65 billion in its second quarter, did
not comment on what impact, if any, it would have on its earnings.
company Thursday raised its profit forecast for the year and its
chief executive said the US economy was "pretty darn good,"
giving GE shares their biggest one-day percentage boost in 21
up 2.8 percent at $33.59, its best one-day gain since January
source : REUTERS
: Sao Francisco River Diversion: Brazil bishop makes river protest
By Steve Kingstone
BBC News, Sao Paulo
The Sao Francisco river also provides hydroelectric power
A Roman Catholic
bishop in Brazil has gone on hunger strike and says he is
prepared to die unless a controversial environmental project is
Luiz Flavio Cappio, 59, is protesting against plans to divert
some of the
water from the Sao Francisco river.
The diverted water will be pumped into four arid states in the
north-east of Brazil.
The bishop has said that he is putting his life in the hands of
Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
Bishop Cappio has been refusing food since Monday lunchtime.
He is drinking small amounts of water but has made it clear he
to die if his demands aren't met.
A written declaration even names the exact spot where his body
is to be
His protest is against one of Brazil's most ambitious but controversial
It would see
water from the 3,000-km (1,800-mile) Sao Francisco river
diverted via a series of canals and aqueducts to four drought-prone
in north-eastern Brazil.
will cost more than $2bn.Opponents say the scheme will benefit
only the wealthiest landowners in the north-east and reduce the
capacity of dams on the Sao Francisco river to generate hydro-electric
Bishop Cappio has called on President Lula to halt the project
before final approval is granted by the country's environment
agency. By coincidence, President Lula was visiting the bishop's
home state of Bahia
on Wednesday. He has made no public comment but it is understood
the presidential palace
is following the case closely.
International Rivers Network, São Paulo
tel (+55) 11.3822.4157 email@example.com www.irn.org
IRN ON THIS PROJECT: This project to divert waters from the Sao
Francisco River in northeastern Brazil will channel about 3% of
the annual flow of the Sao Francisco through 500 km of canals
to regional rivers for irrigation and urban water supplies, as
well as for industry. Opponents of the project say there is insufficient
flow in the Sao Francisco to guarantee adequate supplies for all
: Ilisu-Staudamm zu verkaufen (TAZ)
Weltbank will mit dem Projekt nichts mehr zu tun haben: Seit Jahrzehnten
protestieren die Kurden gegen den Ilisu-Staudamm am Tigris. Jetzt
sucht Siemens einen Käufer für das umstrittene Projekt.
Geplanter Baubeginn: schon im Oktober
VON ARIANE BRENSSELL
Jahrelang haben die kurdischen Anwohner gegen den Ilisu-Staudamm
im Südosten der Türkei gekämpft - jetzt entscheidet
sich, wer ihr nächster Gegner ist. Das EU-Kartellamt hat
Siemens vorgeschrieben, die Hydro-Sparte der VA-Tech zu verkaufen.
Der geschätzte Preis von 300 Millionen Euro enthält
auch den umstrittenen Ilisu-Staudamm.
von der Nichtregierungsorganisation WEED ist überzeugt, dass
der Damm sehr wichtig für den Deal ist: "Mit vollen
Auftragsbüchern lässt sich die VA-Tech Hydro besser
verkaufen." Das Bauvolumen beträgt rund 1,5 bis 2 Milliarden
Dollar. Die VA-Tech Hydro habe ihren Kunden versichert, dass die
Geschäfte "wie bisher" weiterlaufen.
internationalen Proteste schienen zunächst Erfolg zu haben:
2002 zogen sich alle Firmen aus dem Projekt zurück. Nur die
VA-Tech hielt an dem Staudamm fest und gründete ein neues
Baukonsortium, zu dem auch die deutsche Züblin AG gehört.
Der Baubeginn ist nun für Oktober geplant, wie türkische
ein Teil des 32 Milliarden Dollar teuren Südostanatolien-Projektes
GAP (Güney Anadolu Projesi). Insgesamt besteht es aus 22
Staudämmen und 19 Wasserkraftwerken. Die Pläne gehen
auf die 50er-Jahre zurück, Baubeginn war 1977. Bislang wurden
sechs Staudämme errichtet. Mit verheerenden Konsequenzen:
In den Nachbarstaaten Syrien und Irak wird das Wasser knapp, die
Böden versalzen, durch die Mücken auf den künstlichen
Seen breiten sich Tropenkrankheiten aus. Hunderttausende der Bewohner
wurden vertrieben, oft ohne entsprechende Entschädigung.
Selbst die Weltbank sah ihre Standards nicht mehr gewährleistet
und stieg 1984 aus dem Projekt aus.
weitere 78.000 Menschen umgesiedelt und 7 Millionen Hektar fruchtbares
Ackerland überflutet werden. Versinken würde auch die
12.000 Jahre alte Stadt Hasankeyf. Die Vertriebenen seien oft
"schwer traumatisiert", berichtet Handan Coskun vom
Projekt Dikasum in Diyarbakir, das zwangsumgesiedelte Frauen betreut:
"Die Selbstmordrate war zeitweise extrem hoch."
Regierung hat angekündigt, den Staudamm nur zu genehmigen,
wenn verbesserte Umwelt- und Umsiedlungspläne vorliegen.
Inzwischen wurde eine Firma aus Ankara beauftragt, die Bewohner
zu befragen. Ercan Ayboga von der kritischen Ilisu-Plattform hält
diese Umfragen für "Augenwischerei", denn "die
entscheidenden Fragen werden nicht gestellt". Die Bewohner
dürften sich nicht zu dem Staudammprojekt selbst äußern,
stattdessen würden sie etwa nach Essensvorlieben gefragt.
"Außerdem sind die Umsiedlungspläne immer noch
nicht veröffentlicht, obwohl der Bau im Oktober beginnen
Hydro interessiert sich auch der österreichische Industrielle
Mirko Kovats - auch bekannt als "Mister Top Deal". Seine
Firma nimmt keine Stellung zu dem Damm: "Wir haben lediglich
prinzipielles Interesse am Kauf." Auch Siemens erklärt:
"Ilisu hat keinen wesentlichen Einfluss auf den Verkaufspreis
der VA-Tech Hydro."
hält es für "äußerst unwahrscheinlich",
dass ein Großauftrag wie Ilisu unbedeutend sein soll für
eine Verkaufsentscheidung. Zumal nicht ausgeschlossen ist, dass
die Bundesregierung den Bau mit einer Hermes-Bürgschaft absichert.
"Ein Antrag auf Deckung des Projektes durch die Exportkreditversicherungen
der beteiligten Länder ist beabsichtigt", bestätigt
Ulrich Weinmann, Geschäftsführer der Züblin International
und sozialen Probleme dürften die Bundesregierung nicht abhalten,
sich beim Ilisu-Staudamm zu engagieren. Das International Rivers
Network kritisiert: "Deutschland und Österreich sind
in der OECD die einzigen europäischen Länder, die verschärfte
Standards für Staudämme blockieren."
taz Nr. 7777
vom 24.9.2005, Seite 8, 129 Zeilen (TAZ-Bericht), ARIANE BRENSSELL
: Doubts about value of large international water meetings
experts call for a reappraisal of global water conferences. In
a discussion note, Peter Gleick and Jon Lane express ''significant
doubts about the added value of additional global conferences
unless they are carefully designed, limited in scope, and focused
in effort''. They suggest that future global conferences stick
to global issues, while smaller and cheaper regional or sectoral
meetings would be better at achieving practical results. They
also recommend that ministerial meetings should be organised by
the United Nations or national governments, not as parts of mega-conferences
like the World Water Forums organised by the World Water Council
Find the article
abstraction here : http://www.iwra.siu.edu/win/abstracts/VOL30/V30N3/V30N3WaterForum%20GleickLane.html
Source Weekly via EWMN
: Inauguration of the South West Wastewater Treatment Plant in
St Petersburg - an important step towards an improved environment
in the Baltic Sea
St Petersburg South West Wastewater Treatment Plant has been put
into operation in the presence of President Putin and Mrs Valentina
Matvienko, Governor of the City. This new treatment plant will
biologically clean the wastewaters of a 720,000 population equivalent.
It will help to meet the Helsinki Commission Recommendations and
EU standards of water treatment, contributing significantly to
the upgrading of water quality in the Baltic Sea and thus benefiting
all neighbouring Baltic Sea countries.
source : EIE
, via EWMN
: Announcement: WCD+5: Implementing the Recommendations of the
World Commission on Dams. (Expert Workshop, Panel Discussion and
Media Conference in Berlin, November 15) , organized
by IRN (International Rivers Network)
the fifth anniversary of the launch of the World Commission on
Dams (WCD) report. WCD+5 will bring together experts, government
representatives and activists with experience in working toward
the implementation of the WCD recommendations. The conferences
two specific objectives will be:
the broad public support for the WCD report, and share knowledge
about how it has been utilized. Five years after the launch of
the report, many governments, financial institutions and international
organizations are utilizing the report in their efforts to improve
decision-making processes related to large dams and water and
To bring together
interested experts from all over the world to share experiences
with the implementation of the WCD recommendations. The conference
is meant to support discussions about good models for the implementation
of the WCD guidelines. Participants will be encouraged to discuss
challenges to implementation and solutions.
an more informations : please visite IRN Website : http://www.irn.org/wcd/index.php?id=5/050829program.html
information on the WCD: visite
the RiverNet Webpages
: Drome River Project Wins International Thiess Riverprize
Cooperative Research Centre
AUSTRALIA The Drome River Valley in southern France has
won the prestigious 2005
International Thiess Riverprize for its restoration and management
International Thiess Riverprize was awarded at a gala function
on 7 September
during the 8th International Riversymposium in Brisbane, involving
more than 450 delegates from
30 countries. This is the richest river prize in the world.
river, once too polluted for swimming and sucked dry by agricultural
seen significant improvement in its water quality, wetland biology
and flood risks.
restoration of the Drome River Valley is an excellent example
of a collaborative partnership
of local governments working through the Communaute de Communes
du Val de Drome (CCVD)
with local stakeholders to produce a model for European river
management, said Professor Paul
Greenfield, chair of the international judging panel.
panel was particularly impressed with the achievements and progress
over a 20-year period
to monitor river flows and upgrade sewage treatment facilities.
The actions of the CCVD
have ensured sustainable development of the Drome River Valley.
of French water experts is visiting Brisbane to participate in
the symposium and receive the award.
finalists for the International Thiess Riverprize were the
Kissimmee River Restoration Project (USA), the St. Croix International
(Canada), the Sha River Restoration project (China) and the Hudson
River Estuary project (USA).
the Bulimba Creek Catchment Association won the $50,000 National
Riverprize for restoration, revegetation and clean-up efforts
of a large Brisbane urban creek.
managers from the Drome River restoration project are available
for interviews in Brisbane, 6-9 September.
Cooperative Research Centre
President, CCVD France
+33 6715 30456
+33 4752 54382
+ 61 408 55166
+ 61 418 882 063
New Orléans / US : WETLAND RESTORATION SEEN AS CRUCIAL
Delta's marshes, islands form buffers against storm surges, scientists
Chronicle Environment Writer)
catastrophic flooding of New Orleans was long predicted by scientists,
and researchers are now promoting a way to avoid similar disasters
in the future -- a Manhattan Project-style effort to restore the
barrier islands and vast marshes that once protected the city
from the sea and storms.
note that over a period of 7,000 years, the Mississippi River
created a huge delta that sheltered the region now supporting
New Orleans from storm surges.
But the delta
-- and its wetlands and islands -- have been steadily shrinking
since 1930, thanks to river diversion projects that have prevented
the river from depositing silt and sand at its mouth. Instead,
the sediment has been directed further offshore, beyond the continental
that a catastrophe like Katrina won't be repeated, say scientists,
a significant portion of the old system must be reconstructed.
Orleans won't be safe from another storm like Katrina until we
restore this hurricane buffer," said Robert Twilley, a professor
of wetland science at Louisiana State University and the leader
of a team overseeing a $2 billion marshland rehabilitation project
in the state.
protecting New Orleans will take a lot more than $2 billion,"
rough estimate is $14 billion," he said.
Prior to the
European settlement of the area, about 3.6 million acres of marsh
and an extensive system of sandy offshore islands surrounded the
mouth of the Mississippi River, protecting inland areas from the
worst effects of storm surges and waves, said Twilley.
and islands were the direct handiwork of the river, which continually
dumped sediment into its delta, Twilley said.
outlet would shift over time, from east to west and back again,
constantly building up new islands and wetlands with the sand
and silt harvested during the river's course through North America.
loss was part of the process, but it was always accompanied by
wetland gain," Twilley said.
But this ecological
dynamic began changing in the 1900s, Twilley said.
built around New Orleans after a disastrous 1927 flood, and an
extensive canal and levee system was dug throughout the delta
to accommodate navigation and oil development through the 1940s.
The Mississippi River was basically channelized, and its sediment
load directed off the continental shelf.
and barrier islands began withering away. More than 1 million
acres have been lost since 1930. Scientists predict another 300,000
acres will disappear by 2050 if the trend isn't reversed. And
with each acre lost, said Twilley, the threat to New Orleans is
of wetland and barrier island loss have been clear to scientists
for some time. Detailed scenarios of a major hurricane hitting
New Orleans -- many eerily similar to what transpired with Katrina
-- have been published in both the popular and scientific presses
at least since the early 1990s.
early 1970s, we knew the diagnostics of how the system was changing,"
said, scientists are ready with a "prescription" to
reverse the trend: reconnecting the river to its historic delta,
removing some canals and other artificial structures, distributing
dredge spoils so that wetlands and barrier islands once again
emerge from the gulf waters.
Such a restoration
would have benefits other than surge control, scientists say.
Specifically, it should bolster the region's important seafood
industry. Gulf wetlands are critical nursery areas for a wide
range of commercially important marine species, including shrimp,
blue crab, oysters, redfish, menhaden and weakfish.
indicates that storm surge in adjacent inland areas is reduced
by 1 foot for every square mile -- 640 acres -- of wetland that
is restored. Gregory Stone, the James P. Morgan professor of coastal
geology at Louisiana State University, said a sufficiently ambitious
project would have a dramatic effect on New Orleans and its environs.
undertaken lots of storm surge computer simulation during the
last five years, and we've proven the effect of (restored islands
and marshes) in retarding storm waves and surges," Stone
have data that conclusively shows the Louisiana coast becoming
more vulnerable every year if we don't bolster marshes and islands,"
could be challenging from an engineering standpoint, Stone acknowledged.
The Mississippi Delta is a dynamic and complex environment, and
it remains unclear if sufficient raw materials are at hand.
the Mississippi is no longer the Big Muddy of yesteryear. Upstream
diversions, development and channelization have greatly reduced
the amount of sand and silt carried by the river.
use diversion structures to redirect sediment (coming down the
river) that is now going off the continental shelf," said
Scott Faber, a water resources specialist with Environmental Defense,
an environmental group active in Gulf of Mexico wetland restoration.
the amount of sediment carried by the river is less than 50 percent
of (historic) levels," he said.
the general counsel for Environmental Defense, said the use of
diversion structures could be augmented in the short term with
sand dredged from offshore areas. But scientists caution that
it is unclear just how much sand is available.
not sure of the amount of sand resources off our coast (that can
be exploited)," Stone said, "and that's a critical issue.
This isn't just a beach-replenishment project. This would be a
complete restoration of these barrier islands, a matter of substantially
increasing their three-dimensional geometry so they can really
do something to retard surge and erosion."
must also figure out how to accomplish the restoration without
affecting local industry, Twilley said.
to do this in the context of sustaining economic activities --
oil and gas, commercial fishing, shipping, fresh water deliveries,"
he said. "It won't be an easy task."
Twilley and other scientists are involved in a limited island
and marsh restoration project in Louisiana. Bills are now before
the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate to continue funding
the project -- which has been in place for a decade -- for an
additional 30 years at the current rate of $50 million annually.
But to accomplish
the degree of restoration needed to truly protect New Orleans,
Stone said, an exponential increase in funding would be required
-- about $500 million annually for the 30-year period.
such an effort to the Manhattan Project or to putting a man on
the moon, and urged for approval of the accelerated funding.
hadn't planned on providing funds to resolve all the scientific
uncertainties this year," Faber said. "But if we don't
want to see a repeat of this disaster, the restorations we thought
might take decades must now be completed in years."
Martin, Chronicle Environment Writer
via International Rivers Network http://www.irn.org
: Work with nature, not against it to reduce risk of floods in
Europe, says WWF
Belgium - As the European Commission is preparing a new EU
Directive on Flood Risk Management, WWF asks that lessons be learnt
repeated catastrophic flood events across Europe.
20 per cent of Europe's natural floodplains are estimated to be
still functional and thus able to store water, the global conservation
organisation says that the only sustainable solution to reduce
the risk of
further devastating floods is to work with nature, rather than
Parts of Europe
were flooded once more this summer and WWF deeply regrets
the suffering this has caused, in particular in the Alps and the
Danube region. Floods are a natural phenomenon that cannot be
their frequency and intensity is growing due to global warming
change. Still, the damage they inflict can be limited, but traditional
old-fashioned, engineering solutions for flood protection have
proven not to
work without additional measures.
latest events clearly demonstrate that we cannot control floods
magnitude with technical means alone", says Tatjana Brombach,
leader at WWF European Alpine Programme. "Building in areas
at flood risk
just increases the danger of future flooding as even recent flood
engineering works, such as the Pflach dam in the Austrian Alps
this summer, have been shown to be alarmingly vulnerable. The
solution is to reconsider the value of nature to help dealing
Land and water
have a "natural" role to play in flood risk management
for example, water retention by floodplains and wetlands. These
can act as
sponges, absorbing and retaining floodwaters to slowly release
afterwards. However, having been disconnected from their rivers,
in many cases used intensively by humans, floodplains and wetlands
play this role anymore. Broad riverbeds can absorb high water
rivers are now narrower because they have been turned into canals.
Consequently, flooding impacts are exacerbated, as floodwaters
to go and rise above the level of artificial riverbanks and/or
dykes, causing enormous damage.
now, WWF has called on the EU and its Member States to change
their strategy for flood risk management and work with nature.
already has laws that could promote natural flood risk reduction,
particular the 2000 Water Framework Directive. Its implementation
the joint management of all land and waters making up a river
including in cross-border regions, to improve upon its ecological
This would demand improved land-use and forest management, providing
space for riverbeds and making upland wetlands and lowland floodplains
functional again, thus reducing flooding.
Now the European
Commission is developing a Directive dealing specifically
with the risks of flooding. "But natural flood control will
not be promoted
unless new flood risk reduction measures are part of the Water
Directive river basin management plans", says Eva Royo Gelabert,
European Water Policy Officer. "Unfortunately, preparatory
indicate that this level of integration between the two Directives
foreseen, there is not even compatibility in their implementation
timetables. WWF asks the Commission to reconsider this in order
legal consistency between these Directives, avoid doubling administrative
efforts, save money and then effectively protect people."
WWF calls for EU financial support to the affected regions
through, for example, the EU Solidarity and Rural Development
Funds to also
ensure long-term solutions to resolve the inadequate land-use
management policies that have contributed to these terrible flood
Royo Gelabert, Senior European Water Policy Officer, WWF European
Office, Tel. 02-7438814, email firstname.lastname@example.org
Delpero, Communications Manager, WWF European Policy Office, Tel.
+32-2-7400925, Mobile +32 497 406381, email email@example.com
Savoia, Communications Officer, WWF European Alpine Programme,
+41 (0)91 820 60 82, email firstname.lastname@example.org
Notes to editors
to the European Commission, since 1998 floods have
caused some 700 deaths, the displacement of about half a million
over 25 billion Euro in ensured economic losses across Europe.
This does not
include casualties and economic losses from this summer, when
Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Romania and Switzerland have been
· Link to the European Commission's Flood Risk Management
Programme aiming at reducing flood risk for people, property and
is a package including a Directive, which requires Member States
flood risk reduction targets but leaves up to the meaures to reach
public consultation process is ongoing and will end on September
· The EU Water Framework Directive has been in force since
aims to protect all European waters (inland surface waters, estuaries,
coastal waters and groundwater). Under the Directive, Member States
obliged to prevent further deterioration and to enhance and restore
status of aquatic ecosystems as well as terrestrial ecosystems
that directly depend on aquatic ecosystems. The purpose is to
current unsustainable water management practices in order to achieve
ecological and chemical status" by 2015.